By David Douglas, Glendive, MT, December 28, 2011
After going through 3 bags this year alone, my wife ordered the C-ruck for me. It works out perfectly and is just the right size for getting in and out of the cab of the train. Thus, freeing my hands for everything else I need to carry.
By Anonymous, minnesota, December 15, 2011
The C-ruck is Just what I was looking for. This is a great American made product that you wont be disappointed in. I bought this bag to be an overnight bag for work. Its perfect. The computer pocket inside keeps my lap top protected and the side pockets are perfect for all the coputer trinkets and toiletries needed on and overnighter. this bag is far superior over any other backpack iv seen on the market.
By Brad Boen, Minot, ND, November 24, 2011
I'm a locomotive engineer and have seen many people over the years carrying around these great bags from Red OXX and I finally decided to get my own and ended up going with the C-Ruck shown here. Things can take a lot of beating when working on the railroad, and so far this bag has proven to me that it is rugged and can withstand quite a bit of "mishandling". I am very pleased with this product and would recommend it to anyone.
By T Davis, ND, October 27, 2011
I own another Red Oxx product and because of that is the reason I chose to buy another, without a doubt these bags are the best in all aspects. If you want quality, value and peace of mind you can't go wrong. Don't think about it just buy it and know you are getting the best bag out there.
By Kevin, California, October 27, 2011
I am currently in a nine week training program on the East Coast. I purchased this bag to carry books, laptop, safety equipment and exercise clothes on my daily walk from my apartment to the training center. The bag easily accommodated everything. I was particularly happy with how comfortable the bag was to carry when loaded with 15-20 pounds of gear. I am walking approximately 1.5 miles each way and the bag is just as comfortable at the end of the walk as it is at the beginning.
The bag is extremely well made and I can't imagine wearing it out. The straps are well padded and the surface material stays put on your shoulders with sliding around. I've noticed very little overheating between my back and the bag's back pad.
My only suggestion is an organizer in the rear zipped compartment for pens, keys, change, etc. But this is not important enough to rate the product at less than five stars.
The bag is more expensive than most. But, it's made in America. To me, it was well worth the extra bucks to get a top-quality product made here in the States.
By WRB, Texas, September 29, 2011
I've had my C-Ruck for maybe 10 years now. The quality of the construction of Red Oxx gear is the best. I don't think under normal use that you can destroy a Red Oxx produt, however. . . A few years ago I had the battery in my GM truck die and with no other means of transportaion I put the battery in my C-Ruck and jumped on my motorcycle to go get another one. Unfortunately the battery leaked acid all on the inside of my ruck. I flushed, rinsed, and soaked the ruck with water for over an hour trying to prevent the acid from destroying my ruck, unfortunately as well made as the C-Rucks are they are no match for battery acid. Within a few days my ruck began to fall apart. I was about to put the Unconditional Lifetime Gaurantee to the test.
I called the good folks at Red Oxx and told them the story. I was fully prepared to pay for the repairs or purchase a new C-Ruck. They told me to send the ruck in to them and they'd let me know if it could be repaired. A week or so later I got a call from Red Oxx informing me that my C-Ruck was beyond repair and they would be replacing it with a new one. I was astonished that they covered the self induced destruction under the warranty. I honestly believe that you could send them a bag of burnt cordura nylon and as long as it had the two steel rings to identify it as a Red Oxx C-Ruck they would honor the ashes under their warranty and replace it. Red Oxx products and customer service are the best you will find anywhere, anytime, anyplace.
By rick bell, arkansas, September 29, 2011
My professional hunter in Matabeleland saw my c-ruck and commented that it appeared to be the only ruck he had ever seen that would hold up to the daily abuse of Africa.He has that ruck now and I just ordered me another.Great product!
By John McClain, Texas, July 29, 2011
Great product and wonderful customer service
By Tootie, Cali, July 21, 2011
The title says it all. This bag is GREAT! We bought it for our son to go on a mission trip to Africa. He was able to fit everything he needed in it for a 9 day trip! He is 6' tall, quite slender, but this sack fits him well! He got BOTH shaving kit bags stuffed full and a pair of tennis shoes (size 13) besides his clothes in the bag. The construction is TOP quality. The fact that it is made in the US by our own peeps, the ruggedness of the bag and that our son's name is Montana, was a hit with him. He is going on 2 safari's while there, and he can't wait to use the bag in the jungle! Our son plans to be a full-time missionary, so he sees this bag being with him all across the world! I am planning on getting me my own.
I can't get this one from my son no matter what......well, you did say to put into your will, cause it will last that long! We believe it! Thanks for making great, American products. Keep it up. Oh, and not enough is said about the customer service...........EXCELLENT! They got back to me within 1 day to answer my question. They sent the bag faster than the shipping stated because our son was leaving soon, AND they informed me that there was no reason to pay for priority shipping (which would have cost me another 20 bucks) because she put a rush on the order and could get it to me in time! HOW AWESOME IS THAT? Way to go customer service.
By Lowell Billings, Coronado California, June 3, 2011
Perfect carry on airline bag. Tough and sturdy for the safari cruiser too. Just enough pockets and storage. Great at sealing out dust and dirt. The best back pack I've owned.
By Tim O'Pry, Atlanta, GA, June 1, 2011
So many things we purchase in this country are now made overseas and/or on the cheap. The focus on cost reduction has driven quality down to the point that we tend to forget what it looks like.
If youwant to see REAL quality, buy an Oxx!
By Dave H, , May 26, 2011
I have only had the Rucksack for a few weeks but have travelled on business with it twice. It easily stores 2 suits, laptop, headphones et al and then fits with more than enough to spare in the overhead compartment. First trip I did not have the laptop and it fit under the seat in front of me.
Great looking, well made (a shade larger than traditional backpacks).
By Matthew, WI, May 12, 2011
I bought this bag to replace an old backpack and messenger bag that I was using to carry my items to and from work. I was first concerned that I wouldn't be able to fit everything in the bag, but was pleasantly surprised when this bag did what I was hoping it would. Being a firefighter, I have to work at different firehouses within the city, so having this very useful bag to carry a change of clothes, workout clothing and shoes, plus a few manuels, works great. I'm was even able to fit the Nomad Shave Kit on top of all other items mentioned. And the exterior pockets work great to fit other misc. items. The quality of the material makes me think that I'll have this bag for a very long time.
By Sean, Grand Junction, CO, April 26, 2011
I have had this bag for about 3 years now. It's been stuffed, crammed, thrown and generally abused. I looked it over the other day and was amazed to find that there is nary a loose thread or scratch.
Sure, it's not the most comfortable pack when you over-load it, but who cares? In our world of disposable crap, this bag stands out and reminds us of a day when craftsmanship and durability actually meant something.
By Bruce Quade, Wisconsin, April 18, 2011
We recently planned a trip to Germany to visit extended family and see some sites. I was searching for a carry on bag that would leave my hands free to assist my mother-in-law and my daughter with their luggage as needed. I found your site and was impressed with the reviews and stated features of the Ruck Sack and order it as well as the Gator. I have found both to be extremely rugged and useful. So much so, that I ordered another Ruck Sack for my son at the last minute and received that one just two days before our departure. They were both extremely useful, as I needed an extra set of hands on several occasions during our trip. We always had room to carry overflow from other family members and had our hands free to push a wheelchair or provide walking assistance to his grandmother. My son can't wait to use his again this summer for a week long mission trip to Colorado this summer. I've already recommended your products to my friends and family. Thank you!
By Hank Blake, Woodstock, GA, March 31, 2011
I bought the C-Ruck for daily and overnight use. I had been using a Swiss Army computer backpack but it did not fit the bill for overnight travel. I always had to carry an additional bag.
The C-Ruck fit the bill, it carries all my daily stuff (computer ,etc.) and still has plenty of room left. The exterior pockets are great! They hold all my small stuff where I can easily find and get to it. With so many exterior pockets I can organize my small stuff and group them for easy and quick to find access.
The bag is sturdy and tough, well made with heavy duty grommets for the sack draw strings. The zippers are strong and open and close like a real closure, you know when you've opened and closed them.
I'm taking a trip to the Dominican Republic with my church this summer and am looking forward to taking my C-Ruck. I know it can hold all my gear for a week. The bag does not look huge but it seems to swallow up everything I put into it.
I also own a Sky Boss, and figured when I was looking for a versatile backpack that if the C-Ruck was built anything like my Sky Boss that it should hold up. I was not disappointed!
If your looking for a versatile daily pack that can hold all your gear plus some, then the C-Ruck is your bag.
I'll write back when I get back from DR and tell how it did for week long trip through the countryside.
By Anonymous, , February 19, 2011
I'm in love with these beautiful bags. Top marks RedOxx. 5 stars!
By Michael Perry, San Francisco, February 17, 2011
What can I say that has not been said about this bag? I own a whole fleet of RedOxx gear yet this one does it all for me. Weekend trips? Pack it up with the large packing containers. No checkin luggage ever. Trips around for work? Its all good. I did buy Bihn vertical brain thing for pens and a few small bags to stick things into. The only less than stellar comment is that the large pockets really don't provide adequate organization for smaller items and you need to invest in some kind of protective bag that will fit inside.
Traveling though is a piece of cake. I pack this with laptop, cables, and clothing. It stows in the overhead. Then I take my trusty gator with kindle, archos music player, ear buds.
I'm down to a significant few things to take and I like it.
Cannot say more. Planning a weekend getaway for a conference in Los Angeles.
Thanks RedOxx! Consider including some kind of vertical organizer in the future for pens, papers, etc.
By WS Lee, Toronto, January 27, 2011
So, after a trip where my twenty-year old backpack was soaked all the way through I decided that it was time for a replacement. I wanted something that could hold my MBP and yet not look like a notebook bag and can be used for other purposes such as groceries, carry-on, day-to-day usage, etc. Basically a versatile, all-around bag that I didn't have to worry about. Hey, my last bag lasted 20+ years and I didn't see any reason why the next one shouldn't either.
After doing a lot of online and offline research and dithering about I finally decided to order the C-ruck. Ordering was dead easy and it arrived right on time.
Within a week, it was on its way with me for a short jaunt to Jakarta. How did it perform? The good news first, it's capacious - it looks big but it fits exactly the carry-n frame. The internal sleeve fits my MBP perfectly and I don't have any worries there about the protection given by the C-ruck. And, yes, it did look as classy as I had hoped it would - sometimes you can't really tell these things unless you have the item right in front of you.
The bad news? It's a heavy bag. The specs says it's over 3 lbs and it's easy to dismiss that until you have it in hand and realize how much that will cut into your carry-on allowance. The weight is also a factor in that this is a "hot" bag, meaning that the weight of the bag, the weight of your items along with the padding in the back may have you overheating pretty quickly. It's not a problem if you're in temperate climes but it can be unpleasant if you're slogging through a tropical city such as Jkt. The straps are also very long and I suspect that the bag is sized for someone who is closer to 6 ft than my 5'8". I'll probably get them cut shorter and restitched when I get the chance.
So, do I feel that I am getting value for my money? A qualified yes. It's a well-built, over-engineered (this is a good point!) bag that looks great and will do all that I want it to do. Unfortunately, there are a couple of niggling points that were not mentioned in other reviews and holds me back from giving it 5 stars.
If I had known about those niggling points it would have made me dither a lot longer than two months!
P.S. I had sent an email asking about sizing and it was suggested that I purchase the mini-ruck but that item would not hold my MBP in its sleeve.
By TL, PA, November 2, 2010
I own lots of Red Oxx bags, including the Roadster Mini Ruck. I suspected a time would come that I needed a bigger ruck, although the Roadster is great for day trips, etc. With two great chances to test this bag out, Red Oxx quickly got me my order for the C-Ruck in Safari. Talk about two opposing uses, the first was a family trip to Disney World. It hauled my usual air travel gear (netbook, chargers and adapters, Bose headphones) plus a bunch of kid gear (juice boxes, snacks, diapers & wipes, change of clothes, toys, books). This would have been too much for the Roadster, AND is still fit under the seat in front of me. Then the next week I loaded it up with 40 pounds of ammo and other gear for a big 3-gun match. I was still comfortable, thanks to the cushioned straps and the quick-adjust metal buckles. It served well as a rifle rest shooting prone, too! The C-Ruck didn't even flinch under all the weight and being moved around all day. The choice between the Roadster and C-Ruck is not an easy one, so I'm happy I now have both.
Frequently Asked Questions
What's the difference between the Airborne Rucksack and the Roadster Mini Ruck?
The Airborne C-Ruck's main compartment is two inches wider and one inch taller than the Roadster Mini Ruck. These larger dimensions are also reflected in the side pockets, front raised pocket and cover flat pocket. See the Specifications Tab at left for further dimension details.
Will the Airborne meet carry-on legal standards?
Sure, the C-Ruck Rucksack will easily fit in the overhead bins of most airlines.
What's the best way to pack the Airborne?
Since our Rucksacks are top loaders, the most efficient way to pack one is to pack items you may need easy access to in the raised exterior pockets. Try rolling each piece of clothing. Another option we recommend is to use our Red Oxx Packing Cubes
. Some intrepid travelers have used the Nomad Shave Kits
and Lil Roy Gadget Bags
as packing cubes. This way you can compartmentalize everything by color coding it. Bundle wrapping would require pulling the entire bundle out to access anything.
How many days worth of supplies will fit in the Airborne?
Depends on how good a packer you are. Most people can get a weekends worth of clothes in the Airborne C-Ruck. We'd estimate three to five days.
What's the red fabric on the inside of the bag for?
Having a bright color on the inside of the bag helps to see what's inside the bag. It also adds an extra layer of weather resistant protection.
Will a laptop fit in the Airborne? What size laptop?
Virtually any laptop with up to a 17 inch diagonal screen and two inches thick will slide into the padded sleeve inside the rucksack.
Does the Airborne Carry-on have a belly strap?
Because the C-Ruck Rucksack does not have a built in frame, therefore a belt strap would not help to balance the load.
Are there any interior pockets?
There is a notebook / laptop stitched-in sleeve located in the back of both the C-Ruck and the Mini Ruck.
Is there a way to securely lock the pockets on my rucksack?
Sure, you can use any TSA approved bag lock
or try our Cable Lock
for a simple, semi-secure solution. Watch this video where CEO Jim Markel demonstrates how you can use the cable that comes with the product Dog Tag
price tag to secure your bag
. Keep in mind, any determined thief can still cut open a soft sided bag with a sharp knife.
My zipper broke. The teeth have separated. Do I send it in for warranty repair?
No need for warranty repair, try to fix it yourself. Check out this video where CEO Jim Markel shows how easy it is to do it yourself.
Can you ship USPS?
Yes, Red Oxx will ship USPS upon request. Simply state, "Please ship USPS" in the cart comments during checkout and we will adjust your billing accordingly.
“I'm a history lesson carried on your back.”
Airborne Carry-on Ruck Sack (C-Ruck)
91054-BordeauxOn back order255
91054-CoalOn back order255
In stock orders ship same day if received by 4:00 PM Mountain Standard Time!
C-Ruck: the do-it-all airline carry-on legal rucksack.
WHY USE A RUCKSACK?
Rucksacks were used by WWII paratroopers. Comfortably molded to their backs they did not add hassles to their already perilous days. Our modern version of the rucksack works just as well--without the added weight and bulk of an internal frame.
Called the "C-Ruck" for carry-on travel use, the Volara foam padded backing on the main compartment cushions your back. The deep and wide main compartment will hold more than enough belongings for a dawn to dark hike.
This rugged rucksack features an interior slip pocket that will safely stow your CamelBak, laptop notebook computer, or tablet. Underneath the C-Ruck pack, we've added Fastex straps to hold your jacket in the middle of your day hike, or your yoga mat when you're heading off to class.
EASY ON, EASY OFF.
No more squirming for the straps--soft UniSuede articulating shoulder straps provide surprising all-day comfort, rotating freely at the base of the shoulder. Far stronger than stitching into the bag. The rings provide a keen workable solution to the weakest part of a backpack, the shoulder strap seams, and are much stronger than stitching into the bag.
PLACES FOR YOUR BELONGINGS.
Loaded with plenty of daisy chain loops on both the rucksack body itself and both shoulder straps, you'll never be short for hanging keys, flashlights, iPods, smartphones and anything else you may need quick access to.
Double drawstring expanded sleeve top closures and handy external raised front and side zippered pockets add almost another 1,000 cubic inches of carrying capacity making it easy to organize your belongings. All external pockets feature our tough #10 YKK zippers that conveniently zip halfway down the pocket sides so you can dig deep if you need to. These tall pockets are also the perfect size for wine, spirit, thermos, water, or soda bottles (or a package of a dozen eggs) in case you plan to pack for a picnic.
EIGHT REASONS TO OWN RED OXX C-RUCK RUCKSACK
1. A RUCKSACK BUILT LIKE A TANK.
Our customers like to define our gear as "built like a tank". While obviously you're not going to be toting around rucksacks that weigh 50 tons and have three inches of armor plate, still the comparison is valid. For a rucksack, they are built tough. Starting with the most durable soft textile material available, 1000 weight CORDURA® nylon, we use super strong proprietary UV resistant thread that is stitched into every seam.
2. BOUND AND BAGGED.
Places where two separate pieces of fabric are stitched together are then bound, that is, we take a long piece of one inch wide nylon webbing and fold it over the edges of the two pieces and stitch them together, this creates a strong seam, or binding, that prevents the pieces from unraveling on the inside of the ruck, or gives it a clean finished look if on the outside of the bag.
3. BOUND INSIDE / BOUND OUTSIDE.
In addition, each exposed fabric edge, such as on a pocket flap, is also bound using a thicker binding material. Inside edges typically receive a thinner nylon webbing, whereas outside corner edges that are exposed to wear will have a thicker nylon binding. All of our binding material is vertically woven to prevent fraying, peeling or splitting that you may commonly see in less expensive dime a dozen rucksacks that brag of "binding" their edges.
4. WHY DOUBLE BOX STITCHING?
Each stress point, such as where the shoulder straps attach to the bag, is double box stitched - which is where we get the "double XX" in our name, Red Oxx; a stitching practice we adapted from our service as military parachute riggers.
5. MY, WHAT BIG ZIPPERS YOU HAVE!
The reason Red Oxx uses the largest zipper available, the #10 YKK VISLON® zipper, is that they are easily repairable, even in the field; they will hold their place, that is, they "lock"; they are difficult to penetrate, thereby increasing the security of your belongings; they function smoothly in inclement weather and they can be yanked from a variety of angles without losing teeth or becoming separated.
6. PUTTING THE HARD IN HARDWARE.
Red Oxx has occasionally been accused of "overdoing" our hardware. But once you've had a cheap piece of plastic hardware break in the middle of a busy intersection, airport, out on the trail or other inconvenient locale thereby dumping your precious belongings all over the ground, having a heavy-duty nickel-plated or stainless steel D ring or attachment swivel that weighs just a little more, is a travel companion's confidence builder and peace of mind maker. After all, you want to enjoy your journey as best you can. Why worry about having your rucksack break you down?
7. TESTED TOUGH.
Use the C-Ruck as your vehicle bug-out bag loaded for bear and ready to ramble. Since this is a fairly large knapsack style bag, smaller framed folks might try the Roadster Mini Ruck.
Tested across the European theater by our Red Oxx Roughneck Bag Testing Crew, the C-Ruck Rucksack loaded on and off trains and intercontinental flights without a hitch (and flagged a few taxis along the way). Packing a week's worth of clothes left room for souvenirs and the external pockets kept our goods organized.
8. BUY IT ONCE, BUY IT FOR LIFE.
Because Red Oxx backs our rucksacks with our "No Bull" Lifetime Warranty, you won't feel guilty about filling up your local landfill with cheap imported junk every season. Buy it once, own it forever, and pass it on. Join the "pack" and buy a military inspired, combat-tough rucksack and stand out from the ordinary backpack crowd. When you're on the go, a Rucksack that won't breakdown is one less worry. Rugged, reliable and tough.
If you're a railroader, due to the harsh conditions on the rails, we recommend our larger 100% ballistic nylon Rail Runner Rucksack or the mondo large Rail King Rucksack.
U.S.A. Exterior Dimensions: 18"L x 12"W x 7"H (excludes raised pockets).
Capacity: 1,428 cubic inches (2,400 total, including all external raised pockets).
Weight: 3.7 pounds.
Metric Dimensions: (Main Compartment Only) 45.7cm L x 30.5cm W x 17.8cm H.
Capacity (total): 40 Liters.
Weight: 1.68 Kilos.
- Exterior dual raised side zippered pockets: 12"H x 7"W x 2"D
- Exterior dual side zippered flat slip pockets: 7"W x 6.5"H
- Exterior raised front pocket: 8"L x 7"W x 2"D
- Exterior zippered flat slip top flap pocket: 10.5"W x 9"H
- Interior flat slip pocket: 14.5"H x 11.5"W
"No Bull" no question's asked Lifetime Warranty. Red Oxx lasts longer.
Designed AND hand made in Billings, Montana U.S.A..
UPS Transit Shipping Time Map.
Witness the birth of your bag and learn about the many steps it takes to handcraft your Airborne C-Ruck Rucksack.
Meet the thundering herd who build your gear with pride.
Red Oxx is a Veteran owned and operated US Manufacturer.
EMAIL POLICY: Online orders will receive an order confirmation email, a UPS tracking information email when your order ships and a product review request follow-up email eight weeks after delivery. In addition, backorders beyond a dozen working days may receive an order follow-up assurance email. During checkout purchasers have the option to opt-out of our other occasional email notifications. Your email address is always secure.
Every great rucksack needs cool luggage accessories.
Rave Reviews from the Pros: About.com's Go Europe travel advisory gives the C-Ruck Rucksack a smashing 5 stars. Check out his Rucksack review.
Rucksack is German for Backpack. Der Rücken (Ruck) refers to the back part of the body and translates as "to move". Sack means "pack". To move a pack. Surprising similarities exist in other European languages such as Rucksack is Rygsæk in Danish, Rugzak in Dutch, Ryggsäck in Swedish, Ryggsekk in Norwegian, and Rugsak in South Afrikaans. A Rucksack (or Ruck Sack) is also commonly called a Haversack, Knapsack or Packsack. We call it the Airborne C-ruck because it's airline carry-on legal.
Airborne C-Ruck Rucksack is a Red Oxx "Staff Pick" favorite.
- "No Bull" Lifetime Warranty
- Designed AND hand made in U.S.A.
- Fabric: 1000 weight urethane coated, Dupont certified CORDURA® nylon
- Weather resistant (NOT waterproof)
- 400 weight denier soft red nylon lining
- All zippers #10 YKK VISLON® self-locking
- Thread: #92 bonded Solar Max nylon
- All seams double stitched and bound
- Reinforced Double box stitching such as on carry handles
- Fair trade Monkey Fist Zip Knots on all zippers
- Daisy chain loops on ruck body and both straps
- Includes adjustable detachable chest strap
- Embroidered Logo Patches
- Fastex side release buckles
- A.L.I.C.E. pack strap adjusters
- Nickel plated 1/4" O-rings allow articulating shoulder straps
- Grab loop handle
- Mil Spec parachute cord with adjustable Fastex tension locks
- Spurred stainless steel grommets
- Uni-Suede padded articulating backpack straps
- 4 lb. closed cell Volara foam padding in back
- Choose from 12 vibrant colors
- Free heavy-duty vinyl luggage tag
- Includes Cable Lock
- U.S.A. Dimensions - Main Compartment: 18"L x 12"W x 7"H
Side Pockets: 12"L x 7"W x 2"H
Front Pocket: 8"L x 7"W x 2"H
- Metric Dimensions Main Compartment only: 45.7cm L x 30.5cm W x 17.8cm H
- U.S.A. Capacity (total): 2,400 Cubic Inches
- Metric Capacity (total): 40 Liters
- U.S.A. Weight: 3.7 Pounds
- Metric Weight: 1.68 Kilos
Airborne C-Ruck Rucksack Color Translator
- Amethyst = Purple
- Black = Raven
- Bordeaux = Dark Red
- Coal = Gray
- Forest = Green
- Khaki = Tan
- Mariner = Blue
- Midnight = Dark Blue
- Olive = Military Green
- Saffron = Yellow
- Safari = 1940s Olive Drab and Desert Tan
Keep in mind: Colors on your monitor will vary from the actual color of the fabric. The only way to accurately gauge a color is to request a swatch.
Questions? Visit our Customer Service Help Desk or call our Toll Free Hot Line: 1-888-733-6999.
Red Oxx "No Bull" Warranty
As time rolls a ceaseless course, only the genuine guarantee remains. The mountains will persist, the oceans are bound to endure and Red Oxx will continue to be rugged, reliable, and tough.
To the depths of the Amazon basin to the peaks of the Himalayas, Red Oxx Manufacturing is infallible.
Red Oxx Bags are guaranteed forever, be sure to include them in your will.
Made in U.S.A.
Red Oxx Bags are handcrafted in Billings, Montana. U.S.A.